With a good background in 2D finite-element solutions, it’s time to advance to the more challenging and sophisticated task of full 3D electrostatic and magnetostatic field calculations. In this article (the twelth in the online course Electric and magnetic field calculations with finite-element methods), we’ll make two assumptions:
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As the final topic in two-dimensional magnetostatics, we’ll consider solutions with permanent magnets. To start, it’s useful to review how permanent magnets work. Introductory electromagnetic texts often don’t treat the topic, and the explanations in many specialized references are overly complex.
The electrons of many atoms carry a circulating current, like a small current loop. Such an [...]
Material properties are the reason why magnetostatic solutions are generally more involved than electrostatic solutions. Dielectrics can usually be characterized by a single value of relative dielectric constant εr up to the point where they break down. On the other hand, magnetic materials do interesting things even at normal values of flux density B:
Magnet steels may exhibit [...]