About 20 years ago, I developed a computer code for Los Alamos National Laboratory to model imploding liners: cylindrical shells driven inward with intense magnetic pressure to produce a strong on-axis shock. The model required continuous curves of electrical conductivity for metals over a broad temperature range — room temperature to ~100 million °K. The data may [...]
This article includes universal curves of the effects of source temperature on the space-charge-limited extraction of charged particles to form beams. The main result is that the current density may exceed the Child limit (discussed in a previous article) when the thermal energy of source particles (kT) is a significant fraction of the extraction energy (qV0). [...]
A common task in computer calculations in collective physics is the generation of input particles with a desired probability distribution in energy, angle or position. This article discusses some easy methods to accomplish the task using a software module to manipulate tabular functions. As an example, we’ll consider creating a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution in kinetic energy U.
First a warning: this article and the three following one’s are interesting if you work with electron-beam generation. Otherwise, they are boring and arcane.
Welcome to those of you who continued after the first paragraph. In my role of writing and maintaining the Trak and OmniTrak codes, I often think about electron-beam extractors. The critical issues are [...]
Distance units are a potential source of confusion in scientific work. It is often convenient to work in convenient units like centimeters or microns, but we must ensure that the physical calculations are performed in consistent SI units. Rules for using units in our software are discussed in several sections of the instruction manuals. I thought [...]