Surface interactions in GamBet calculations

In a previous posting (Electron backscatter at low incident energy), I talked about some of the problems in GamBet calculations that occur when interactions are confined to a thin surface layer. As an example, consider low-energy electron backscatter. At 140 keV, the range in tungsten is only 26 μm. A customer recently expressed interest in an [...]

Node versus volume models in HiPhi solutions

I recently had an inquiry from a customer who is using HiPhi to model a complex switchyard with lots of wires, poles and electrodes. He felt that there were problems in the program because he got error messages when he tried to implement the Boundary method to create a high-accuracy solution in a local volume. I [...]

The fastest computer, revisited

Numerical calculations of electromagnetic fields are labor intensive, especially in three dimensions. I often hear from customers contemplating a new computer purchase who want to know what is the fastest machine. I find it difficult to give a useful answer because I am just as confused by the cloudy specifications issued by chip and computer manufacturers [...]