Iron in magnetic-field calculations (2)

Our programs PerMag (2D) and Magnum (3D) can handle saturation effects in nonlinear magnetic materials. One of the challenges in calculations with steel is tracking down data for the particular material you are using. In a previous article (, I discussed how to represent steel at low values of B. Here, the term low means that […]

How much memory do you actually have?

You certainly know how much memory you installed. The issue here is how much memory you can actually use. The question is relevant if you want to solve large technical problems with programs like ours or MatLabĀ®. For this type of software, limitations may arise from the maximum memory that can be allocated to a single […]

Using Aether for eddy current problems

By coincidence, I had two inquiries this week on eddy-current simulations. The first concerned a pulsed valve using a solenoid and iron holding plate. How quickly could the magnetic force be extinguished? The second inquiry was whether Aether could be used to determine the inductance of a 3D magnetic sensor.

I’ll concentrate on the second issue because […]

SATE Example 02: Why iron?

This PerMag example illustrates the idea of a magnetic circuit and demonstrates the reasons for using iron in magnets. If you want to review the basic physics, see Sect. 5.7 in my book Principles of Charged Particle Acceleration available for free download at:

Use these links to download the example input files:

The first figure below shows a […]

SATE Example 01: Capacitance per length of a transmission line

I have generally picked subjects for articles as the topic of the moment, depending on my current program development or consulting tasks. I will be spending the next two months thinking almost exclusively about Aether, and continuing announcements about the program would become redundant. As an alternative, I decided to write a continuing series of articles […]